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Misaligned spinal rods can induce high internal forces consistent with those observed to cause screw pullout and disc degeneration

Misaligned spinal rods can induce high internal forces consistent with those observed to cause screw pullout and disc degeneration.

Loenen ACY, Noriega DC, Wills CR, Noailly J, Nunley PD, Kirchner R, Ito K, van Rietbergen B.

Highlights

  • High forces are required for reduction of small posterior misalignments
  • Reduction forces are in a range reported to cause screw pullout
  • Reduction may induce asymmetrical non-physiological facet joint loading
  • Reduction may lead to high tissue strains in adjacent and downstream spinal segments
  • Effects of reduction remain observable in postoperative physiological movements

Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT

Manual contouring of spinal rods is often required intraoperatively for proper alignment of the rods within the pedicle screw heads. Residual misalignments are frequently reduced by using dedicated reduction devices. The forces exerted by these devices, however, are uncontrolled and may lead to excessive reaction forces. As a consequence, screw pullout might be provoked and surrounding tissue may experience unfavorable biomechanical loads. The corresponding loads and induced tissue deformations are however not well identified. Additionally, whether the forced reduction alters the biomechanical behavior of the lumbar spine during physiological movements postoperatively, remains unexplored.

PURPOSE

To predict whether the reduction of misaligned posterior instrumentation might result in clinical complications directly after reduction and during a subsequent physiological flexion movement.

 

STUDY DESIGN

Finite element analysis

METHODS

A patient-specific, total lumbar (L1-S1) spine finite element model was available from previous research. The model consists of poro-elastic intervertebral discs with Pfirrmann grade-dependent material parameters, with linear elastic bone tissue with stiffness values related to the local bone density, and with the seven major ligaments per spinal motion segment described as nonlinear materials. Titanium instrumentation was implemented in this model to simulate a L4, L5, and S1 posterolateral fusion. Next, coronal and sagittal misalignments of 6 millimeters each were introduced between the rod and the screw head at L4. These misalignments were computationally reduced and a physiological flexion movement of 15º was prescribed. Non-instrumented and well-aligned instrumented models were used as control groups.

RESULTS

Pulling forces up to 1.0 kN were required to correct the induced misalignments of 6 millimeters. These forces affected the posture of the total lumbar spine, as motion segments were predicted to rotate up to 3 degrees and rotations propagated proximally to and even affect the L1-2 level. The facet contact pressures in the corrected misaligned models were asymmetrical suggesting non-physiological joint loading in the misaligned models. In addition, the discs and vertebrae experienced abnormally high forces as a result of the correction procedure. These effects were more pronounced after a 15º flexion movement following forced reduction.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study indicate that the correction of misaligned posterior instrumentation can result in high forces at the screws consistent with those reported to cause screw pullout, and may cause high tissue strains in adjacent and downstream spinal segments.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Proper alignment of spinal posterior instrumentation may reduce clinical complications secondary to unfavorable biomechanics.

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